Gifford Corrections 4

Ulysses Annotated

Telemachus     Nestor     Proteus     Calypso     Lotus Eaters     Hades     Aeolus     Lestrygonians
Scylla and Charybdis     Wandering Rocks     Sirens     Cyclops     Nausicaa     Oxen of the Sun
Circe     Eumaeus     Ithaca     Penelope

Other works


16.30 redolent of rotten cornjuice: As corn juice was used as a synonym for whiskey, probably cheap, bad whiskey.

Adrian (Michigan) Weekly Press (1887), 22 July: "Geo. Bains, a large man with a weak brains one afternoon last week took in too much rotten corn juice for his personal good; our marshal kindly gave him rest for the night in the cooler."

  16.404-5 Buffalo Bill shoots to kill: for the history of the rhyme see Pom! he shouted twice: Some Memories of Buffalo Bill (1909) in Ulysses

  16.460 I seen a crocodile bite the fluke of an anchor: follow the allusion back to its source in What make a crocodile bite the fluke of an anchor?

  16.472-4 Choza de Indios. Beni, Bolivia: see the postcard Bloom examines at A postcard from Bolivia

  16.487-9 Galeria Becche: for the real name of the Galeria see A galería masquerading under the name of “Becche”

  16.491-4 the former’s ball passed through the latter’s hat: a duelling tale exposed in the article An Affair of Honour

  16.536-8 Brown, Robinson and Co.: discover the original characters in the article Mr Brown, Mr Robinson and the average Joe

  16.549-50 bracing tonic for the system: see The tonic that braces the system for the expression in advertising.

  16.801 Sulphate of copper poison: for newspaper reports on the chemical preservation and enhancement of peas see the article The deleterious effect of copper sulphate on green peas

  16.850 Marcella, the Midget Queen: the story of the diminutive Elizabeth Paddock, told in the article Marcella, the Midget Queen

  16.865 those italianos: news about the Italian quarter of turn-of-the-century Dublin in The Italian Colony in South Dublin

  16.1189 a suit of brown paper (a fact): for more on these suits in Joyce's day read Brown-paper suits in fashion

  16.1257 .)eatondph 1/8 ador dorador douradora: what happened when a compositor miskeyed a sentence - see article Eatondph and douradora

  16.1274-81 20 to 1 Throwaway (off): discover the meaning of "off" at All bets are "off"

  16.1446-8 posed for the ensemble: discover more about the French artists' expression behind this at Altogether now for the ensemble

  16.1498 clothed in the mantle of adultery: a quotation from one of Blacow's sermons in the article The irreverent Richard Blacow in Ulysses

  16.1550-1 fair and forty: for the history of the expression see Fair and forty goes far in a day

  16.1598-1603 destruction of the fittest: see post-Darwinian examples of the expression in the article The destruction of the fittest

  16.1685 Iremonger: see the article Iremonger among the runs for the true state of the Nottinghamshire scoreboard

   16.1884 Und alle Schiffe brücken: explore the meaning of this unlikely expression in The Jeep-crux.



  17.103 leverage of the first kind: according to traditional mechanics, there are three kinds or orders of levers, distinguished by whether the fulcrum, the weight, or the power is in the centre. In levers of the first kind, the fulcrum is in the centre (OED at LEVER n.1 2): examples include a balance, a crowbar, and a poker. A pair of scissors consists of two levers of the first kind. (JS)

  17.128-30 best Abram coal: follow the history of the advertisements and pricing for Abram coal in Dublin in The cost of coal from Flower and M'Donald

 17.150 housebells: the architecture of the calling bell in Dublin's terraces explored in the article Bells to call the servants

17.240 aquacities: for the long history of aquacity see the article Aquacity: awash with watery thoughts

17.592 Bacilikil: see article Advertising names that speak to you: 1 - Bacilikil for advertisements promoting the disinfectant

17.593 Veribest: a trade-name for types of processed foodstuff brought to light in the article Advertising names that speak to you: 2 - Veribest

17.594-5 Uwantit: for aspirational uses of the name see the article Advertising names that speak to you: 3 - Uwantit

17.621-5 The queen’s Hotel, Ennis: for a possible model for Rudolph Bloom's suicide see Death in Ennis

17.868-9 Herr Hauptmann Hainau: for new information on Millie's violating ancestor see Heinous Hainau and the Blooms

17.1039 heaventree: see the article The tree of heaven for references to the real and the mythical trees

17.1253 Matthew F. Kane: an illustrated biography of a Joyce family friend presented in the article James Joyce and Matthew Kane

17.1254 Michael Hart: for the story of the talented athlete and writer see Gallant Mick Hart

17.1369 Beauties of Killarney: a book title found only on the spine described in the article Killarney's Beauties

17.1394 The Hidden Life of Christ: for another mysterious book title located see the article The Hidden Life of Christ Revealed

17.1988-9 eaters of soap: for the origins of the myth see the article Soap-eating in the Arctic

17.2000-5 missing gent: read the missing-person notice on which this flight of fancy is based, in the article A missing gent answering to the name of Bloom

17.2056 Where was Moses when the candle went out?: Bloom's answer is quite traditional, and can be traced back to at least 1821, though the riddle is older (later usually with light(s) rather than candle. The second example given here is the closest to be found to the version in Ulysses. (HB)

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1821), December, p. 572: "[...] like Moses when the candle went out, you find yourself once more in the dark."

Yorkshire magazine (1874), vol. 3, p. 484: "'And where was Moses when the candle went out?'

'In the dark.'"



18.29 to never see thy face again: new sources identified in the article Two unidentified songs in the Penelope episode

18.32-3 if it was a thing: Hiberno-English, meaning "if it was the case that"/"if it happened that" (HB). See, for example, the final verse of "Ould Ireland! you’re my darling", from the Emerald Songster section of Songs of Ireland and Other Lands (New York, 1847: p. 152):

Sweet spot of earth that gave me birth,
  Deep in my soul I cherish,
While life remains within these veins,
  A love that ne’er can perish.
If it was a thing that I could sing,
  Like any thrush or starlin’,
In cage or tree, my song should be,
  Ould Ireland! your’e [sic] my darlin’.

18.78-9 in my hand there steals another: discover the popular song behind the allusion in the article In Molly's hand there steals another

18.159-61 give us a swing out of your whiskers: see the story of this and similar expressions at The swinging whiskers

18.204-6 did you wash possible: for further information of this euphemistic expression see Washing possible is more than possible

18.398 the Spanish cavalry at La Roque: It is true that Joyce definitely refers to San Roque, a town close to Gibraltar where the Spanish population fled after the British occupation of the rock.  However, Molly could not have seen the Spanish cavalry, since the Alcántara Spanish Cavalry Regiment left the town in 1823. Thus, Joycean sources for the fact were either wrong or more easily, Joyce, who was not a historian, did not pay attention to the dates. He took the information about the cavalry from Field’s book on Gibraltar.

See Adolfo Muñoz Pérez, “San Roque y su historia military: 1704-1900”. Almoraima: revista de estudios campogibraltareños (2010), pp. 207-18; Phillip F. Herring, Joyce's “Ulysses” Notesheets, p. 511, l. 45. (Rafael Garcia: April 2016)

18.446 kidfitting corsets: read advertisements for the undergarments in the article Kidfitting corsetry

18.546 the statue of the fish: Phillip F. Herring identifies the sources of Joyce’s Gibraltar references in Buffalo Notebook V.A.2 as H. M. Field’s Gibraltar (1888) and The Traveller’s Hand-book for Gibraltar (London, 1844) by “An Old Inhabitant” (see Joyce’s Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses (1977), p. 60). Another helpfully descriptive account of the statue may be found in G. R. B. Horner’s Medical and topographical observations upon the Mediterranean (Philadelphia, 1839: pp. 67-8):

(Eamonn Finn 10/13)

Near these summer-houses is the statue of General Elliott, who distinguished himself so much during the last and celebrated siege, and that of Neptune, which was the figure head of the St Juan, a Spanish ship of the line, of one hundred and twenty guns, captured by the English. Both of these statues are of wood, but well worthy of notice. That of Neptune is admirably executed. It is of colossal size, represents him naked, with his muscular limbs well displayed, and his trident plunged into the head of a fish at his feet. This statue is highly prized, and carefully preserved by paint. 

To show it to advantage it is placed over a ravine, across which is thrown a rustic bridge, much used by persons rambling about the gardens, and passing to and from the town.

18.616 wogger:
dog-allusions as nicknames in the article Molly's doggery-woggery

18.673 taittering: for Joyce's source for the term see the article Molly's taittering lips

18.731 if its a thing: see 18.32-3 above.

18.740-1 long crossed letters: for an explanation of (and attitudes to) crossed letters see Cross words for crossed letters

18.871 Sandfrog showers: see Molly's sandfrog shower in Gibraltar for newspaper reports of the strange cloudbursts

18.879 Miss This Miss That Miss Theother: nineteenth-century evidence for the informal phrase presented in the article Miss This Miss That and Miss Theother

18.953 Whit Monday is a cursed day: see Bad luck arrives at Whitsuntide for more information about the myth.

18.988: will you be my man will you carry my can: a written source to confirm Gifford's note in the article Will you be my man will you carry my can

18.1089-90 one thing laughing at the other: follow the history of this expression in It's just one thing laughing at another

18.1135: wouldnt he get the great suckin: a “suck-in” is a slang term (originally American) for “a deception; a disappointing event or result” (OED) (JS). The dictionary cites “a grand suck-in” from the Short Patent Sermons (1841) of “Dow, Jr.” (Elbridge Gerry Paige), and “great suck-in” occurs on the front page of the Milwaukee Sentinal of 20 July 1844. Joyce’s expression can also be found in the Connacht Tribune of 4 December 1909 (p. 6):

I have got a great "suck-in" from Kearns, and am terribly deceived by those men who deceived me to pay £52 10s for such land as you have mentioned.

As Joyce’s text developed, he changed from “takein” to “suckin”, which gave him a wider range of contextual innuendo.

18.1292 so sweetly sang the maiden on the hawthorn bough: the sources provided for these Two unidentified songs in the Penelope episode - see the article

18.1294 Freddy Mayers private opera: find the story of Frederick Mayer, cicerone for Joseph Poole's show, in the  article Freddy Mayer and Joseph Poole's Myriorama

18.1346 those fine young men I could see down in Margate strand bathingplace from the side of the rock: As Joyce's note sheet entry (Herring, p. 511) reads: "Margate on N.E. side", Ford and Field seem to be his most likely sources. Molly's memory is of Gibraltar not England. (HB)

     Richard Ford, The handbook for travellers in Spain, vol. 2, 1890, p. 419:

"The North Front is a great source of comfort for the inhabitants during the summer months. The eastern beach, known commonly by the name of Margate, is the general afternoon resort. A raised Esplanade with band stand has been built, and trees planted along the main road."

Henry Martyn Field, Gibraltar, 1890, p. 134:

"On the north the townsfolk pour out of the gates to get under the giant cliff which casts its mighty shadow across the Neutral Ground. A little farther to the east, they come to the sands of a beach, which seems so like a watering-place in dear Old England that they have christened it Margate."

18.1565-7 cobbles: discover cobbles of coal in the kitchen fire in the article Washing off the cobbles

Joyce Annotated (and additional glosses for Stephen Hero)


Alfred Hunter: see Fitz-Epsykure: the further adventures of Alfred and Marion Hunter to read more about the life and activities of Hunter  

1.44-51 etc. old Cotter:
see the article  Edward Graham Cotter: another collector of rates? for another minor character from the Rate-Collector's Office

1.262-5 rheumatic wheels: cycling wordplay in the article Rheumatic wheels

6.45 racing tissues: for an explanation of Lenehan's racing telegrams see Sporting issues and racing tissues

8.2-6, etc. Ignatius Gallaher: the life of a Joyce family friend and Dublin newspaperman told in the article Ignatius per ignotium: the short life and extraordinary times of Fred Gallaher

dear dirty Dublin: an endearing expression for Dublin, but Lady Morgan's role in its coinage questioned, in the article Lady Morgan and "dear dirty Dublin"
12.395-404, etc. Mr Henchy: follow the life of another minor character at the Rate-Collector's Office in the article Robert Henchy: a choice of two collectors

12.477-80, etc. and 12.1588-92, etc. Crofton: the real life of another minor character - see James Crofton: a tradition of public service
15 Kate and Julia Morkan:
see the series of articles on the Flynn family at Flynnlandia, or the rise (and fall) of the House of Usher

15 Bartell d'Arcy: the life of Bartle McCarthy, a popular tenor at the Pro-Cathedral, investigated in The man behind Bartell d'Arcy

15.4 halldoor bell: the system of calling bells operated from an ironwork device on the front railings explained in Bells to call the servants

15.810-12 “His name,” said Aunt Kate, “was Parkinson": read when the Misses Morkan might have heard the English tenor William Parkinson in Old Parkinson, the English tenor

15.1028-9 laid on here like the gas: see Laid on like the gas for the history of this expression

Xmas Eve (1993) p. 40 Can't you talk?: see the picture of a child and a dog alluded to by Joyce in the article Can't you talk?


Notes Emily Lyons: for more information on Nora's childhood friend found in the streets of Galway City see the article Emily Lyons sets sail for Boston

Finnegans Wake

 445.29-30 far away on the pillow: the poetic source for the allusion pinned down in the article A pillow on the billow


365 One of the Family and Sister Susie's Playing: read the lyrics of the two songs referred to in What is Sister Susie's Playing? [Selected Letters]

Poems and Shorter Works

71 Quaint-perched aerie: the young Joyce adapts Jerome K. Jerome in his early poem, according to the article Observing from his quaint-perched aerie


I. 646-66: the history of a geographical joke uncovered in the article When is a thigh not a thigh?

I.1645-6 Peter Parley himself was on the first page: the drawing of Peter Parley "with his broad hat like a Protestant minister" revealed in the article Peter Parley's Tales of the ancients

II. 87 the silent telegraph-poles passing his window swiftly every four seconds: more on the calculation of the speed of the Dublin-Cork night-train, in The speed of the train during prayer

III. 127 My excellent friend Bombados: The quotation is from Pepita,  a comic opera in three acts, by Charles Lecocq. The character's name should read Bombardos.  For details see: Harald Beck, "My Excellent Friend Bombados", in James Joyce Broadsheet 83, June 2009, p. 3. (HB)

IV. 216
crossblind: read up on this decorative feature in The crossblind crux

V. 279 A crocodile seized the child: read up on the Classical crocodile syllogism in Did he bring his crocodile?

V. 2745-50 John Alphonsus Mulrenan:
 a real-life Mulrennan suggested in the article Mulrennan from the west of Ireland

Stephen Hero

 XX (pp. 117-8) Glynn: a likely source for Cranly's friend Glynn offered in the article Professor Bloody-Big-Umbrella Glynn

 XXI (p. 133) human ostrich: historical prototypes for the expression provided in the article The human ostrich

 XXVI. (p. 221) MAD COW AT CABRA: a constellation of newspaper stories near Bloomsday highlighted in Mad Cow at Cabra