[Agreement] Made Between Laurence Fitzsimons of Grand Canal place in the City of Dublin Corn Factor [...] & Patrick Flinn of Back Lane in s[ai]d City starch & Blue Manufacturer [...] House Ten[emen]t & Yard with the appurt[inences] [...] sold [...] Situate in Back Lane.2
By this time, the Hylands are listed only at Nos 48 and 49 Back Lane (Wilson’s Dublin Directory for 1814):
Hyland (William) Leather-seller, 48, Back-lane; Hyland (William, jun.) Grocer, 49, Back-lane.
But Patrick Flynn of No 53 Back Lane is not destined to remain a starch manufacturer for long. By 1817 both he and Laurence Fitzsimons (with whom he was negotiating in 1814) have turned publicans, as can be seen in a later deed relating to No 21 Back Lane:
Patrick Flynn late of Back lane Starch manufacturer now a Publican and Laurence Fitzsimons late of Corn markett in the City of Dublin Corn factor now a Publican..and Thomas Farrell of High Street in said City [...] Reciting that by Indenture Deed of Lease bearing date the 19th of Novr 1814 [between Fitsimons and Farrell].3
Wilson’s Dublin Directory of 1817 confirms Patrick Flynn the elder’s new role:
Flinn (Patrick) Spirit-Merchant, 53, Back-lane.
Maybe he is the “Patrick Flinn” who thanks his customers in November 1829 in a notice to the Freeman for their “encouragement” at the revived “old Carlingford Tavern” on Aston’s Quay:
N.B. – P. F. is constantly supplied with the Best Old Wines and Spirits, &c.4
It cannot be said with certainty what relation this Patrick Flynn was to Joyce.
2) No 50 Back Lane and Patrick Flynn the younger
William Hyland the younger was also declared bankrupt in 1814.5 Patrick Flynn the younger moved rapidly to secure the business at No 50 Back Lane:
The Old Established Starch and Blue Manufactory, No. 50, Back Lane, Dublin, many years extensively carried on by Mr. William Hyland. Patrick Flynn begs leave to inform the Customers of said House (his Friends and the Public), that the above Business will be carried on on the same extensive scale as usual, and on the most liberal terms. – He therefore hopes, by a strict attention, to merit a continuance of their patronage. N. B. Country Orders executed with punctuality and dispatch.
Freeman’s Journal (1814), 22 June p. 1/1
It seems that Patrick Flynn extended his business premises in Back Lane further in 1823, by obtaining further land and buildings from William Hyland the younger:
Between William Hyland Junior of Old Merrion in the County of Dublin Esqre […] and Patrick Flynn of Francis Street in the City of Dublin Stamp [for "Starch"] Manufacturer... All that piece or parcel of Ground Situate on the South side of Back Lane in the City of Dublin on which the house Number Fifty one and Fifty one and an half were then standing with Store & yard thereunto belonging.6
From this contract we can see that Patrick Flynn also controls premises in nearby Francis Street. This is confirmed in the 1818 issue of Treble’s Almanack, which lists old Patrick Flynn as a spirit merchant at 53 Back Lane, and young Patrick Flynn as a starch and blue manufacturer at No 157 Francis Street:
Merchants and Traders […]
Flinn (Patrick) Spirit-merchant, 53, Back-lane […]
Flynn (Patrick) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 157, Francis-street. (p. 74)
It is noticeable that the old Patrick Flynn normally (though not systematically) spells his name using the older form “Flinn”, and the younger styles himself “Flynn”.
Patrick’s uncle James (or perhaps his brother – Peter Costello is certainly right to be cautious here) is also involved in the family business, and they take on new property in Thomas Street and later in John Street West, all in the same area of central Dublin west of the castle. The following list gives some impression of the range and network of businesses operated by the family:
Flinn (James) Starch & blue-manufacturer, 49, Thomas-street;
Flynn (Pat.) Starch and blue-manuf, 157, Francis-st. & 49, Thomas-st. Wilson’s Dublin Directory (1823), p. 75
Starch & Blue Manufacturers [...]
Flynn Jas, 49, Thomas st.
Flynn Patrick, 157, Francis st.
Pigot’s Directory of Ireland (1824), p. 86
Flinn (James) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 157, Francis-street [...]
Flynn (James) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 50 and 51, Back lane.
Watson’s, or, the Gentleman’s and Citizen’s Almanack (1826), p. 77
Flinn (James) Starch and blue-manufacturer, 157, Francis-street; […]
Flynn (James) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 50 and 51, Back lane;
Flynn (Patrick) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 50, Back-lane.
Wilson’s Dublin Directory (1827), p. 71-2
Flynn (James) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 122, Thomas-street [... ]
Flynn (Patrick) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 50 and 51, Back-lane.
Wilson’s Dublin Directory, 1830 (1829)
Flynn (James) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 122, Thomas-street;
Flynn (Patrick) Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 50 and 51 Back-lane.
Wilson’s Dublin Directory (1828), p. 70
At this time there were at least eight other starch-manufacturing businesses in Dublin. The fact that potatoes were so important for starch manufacturers led to difficult times during the periods of famine in Ireland.
3) Patrick Flynn the younger – marriage, a young family, and a court appearance
Patrick Flynn the younger (or “of Thomas Street”, as he later tended to be called in newspaper notices) was one of James Joyce’s great-grandparents. He had married Mary Fitzsimons by 1815. Perhaps Mary Fitzsimons was a relation of the Laurence Fitzsimons with whom Patrick Flynn the older had dealings in Back Lane. Patrick and Mary Flynn had many children, including the “Misses Flynn”.
The first child was Mary, named after her mother and baptised on 6 August 1815 at the church of St Audeon. The church was just north of the High Street, and part of the northern side of Back Lane fell into its parish.
When Patrick and Mary’s next recorded daughter, Bridget, arrived, in 1821, she was baptised at St Catherine’s church on 8 April. St Catherine’s church is on Meath Street in Dublin, which forms a junction with Thomas Street, where Patrick had his starch business. In the following year their next daughter, Catherine, was also baptised at St Catherine’s, on 7 March.
Their next two daughters were baptised at the church of SS. Michael and John on Lower Exchange Street. These were Judith (baptised on 9 January 1825) and Lucy (16 December 1827). Another son, James Joseph was born around this time – probably in 1826. Just after Judith’s baptism a James Flynn (probably Patrick’s brother or cousin) married a Jane Fitzsimons at the same church – with “Patt Flinn” as a witness.
These, then, were the first recorded children of Patrick and Mary Flynn, and amongst them the first potential “Misses Flynn”: Mary, Bridget, Catherine, Judith, and Lucy. Between 1829 and 1831 Julia and Ellen (later Mrs Callanan) arrived, though the baptismal details have not yet come to light.
By a miraculous chance, we learn something about young Bridget and Catherine through a newspaper report in the Freeman’s Journal of 15 January 1829. The newspaper narrates – in an article headed “Child Stealing” – that, the previous March:
Esther Beahan was indicted for decoying away and enticing Bridget Flynn from her parents on the 24th of March last, and taking from her person several articles of wearing apparel.
Bridget Flynn was about seven years old at the time; she and her sister (presumably Catherine) were walking to school in French Street (now Mercer Street) one morning when they met Esther Beahan, whom they knew previously.7 Esther took them off to nearby Stephen’s Green and asked them to give her their ear-rings, bonnets, coats, and boots, saying she would get them better ones. Needless to say, Esther disappeared and the little girls had to be taken home by a gentleman who took pity on them. We know Bridget is the Bridget Flynn who was the daughter of Patrick and Mary, because when the old gentleman took them home he is said to have taken them to “No. 50, Back-lane”. Patrick Flynn had to attend court and was examined at some length, corroborating those details he knew. The Freeman journalist was clearly impressed by the calmness that Bridget showed in court, and we have early evidence for the descriptive powers of a relative of Joyce:
She was cross examined at some length. Her testimony, however, remained unshaken, and she gave it with surprising clearness and accuracy.
This was not a one-off crime by Esther Beahen. The following week she was indicted in the Recorder’s Court on a similar charge, kidnapping a child named Mary Byrne, and stealing a cloak and bonnet.8
There are at least two points of relevance to “The Dead” here. Firstly, the Freeman states categorically that Flynns lived in Back Lane. In “The Dead” Aunt Kate responds to Gabriel’s comment that Patrick drove to the military review “from his ancestral mansion somewhere near Back Lane” with:
O now, Gabriel, he didn't live in Back Lane, really. Only the Mill was there.9
We now know from the newspaper and from other evidence that he did live there, at least in the late 1820s.
Secondly, Aunt Julia is said to have embroidered the picture of the two murdered princes at school:
Probably in the school they had gone to as girls that kind of work has been taught ...10
It now seems that this is likely to have been one of the Free Schools on French Street.
4) Patrick Flynn the younger – more children, a fire, bankruptcy, and politics
The 1830s were a significant and sometimes difficult time for Patrick Flynn. They started on a happy note. On 24 January his next daughter Elizabeth was baptised in the parish church of St Michael and St John.
The Dublin City Valuation of 1830 shows Flinns as the occupiers of Nos 50 and 51 Back Lane ("4 stories, with yard and buildings for starch manufactory"); No 11 John Street (3 stories, with yard) – occupied in conjunction with one other person; but they no longer leased or owned No 21 Back Lane.11 We also find Patrick Flynn starting to engage in political activity in a small way, demonstrating nationalist leanings and support for Daniel O’Connell. In April 1830 he is one of the signatories to a notice about the O’Connell Fund published by members of the parish of St. Michael and St. John.
But Patrick's busines suffers a severe knock in early July. As well as the premises at Back Lane and elsewhere in that area, he had a manufactory in Henrieta Place, north of the river. The Freeman’s Journal takes up the story:
We regret to state that the starch manufactory of Mr. Flyn of Back-lane, in Henrietta-place, was totally destroyed at an early hour on Saturday morning last. The engines of the Atlas National, Sun, Phoenix, and West of England were sent for. Each afforded every possible assistance; but, on their arrival, the flames had made too much progress to be easily arrested. A rather scanty supply of water was afforded from a pump in the yard, from which the Linen Hall and Atlas engines were worked; and to the length of time after the fire was discovered before assistance was obtained, may be attributed the great loss which has been sustained. At so late an hour as eleven o’clock the preceding night, the premises were inspected by one of the persons connected with the establishment, and then all appeared right. We are happy to state that no lives were lost, but we are sorry to add that the property was not insured.
Freeman’s Journal (1830), 6 July
The newspaper may, however, have overwritten its account. Patrick was quick to dampen fears in the newspaper the next day:
Letter to the Editor – Sir, - I beg to correct an exaggerated statement in your paper of this day, of a fire which occurred on my premises in Henrietta-place, on Saturday last. The only loss sustained is the falling in of the roof and floor of an old warehouse, in which, fortunately, there happened to be no stock of goods. The expense of repairing same will not amount to 20l. The machinery being all metal could not be injured. Patrick Flynn, 50, Back-lane. Dublin, 6th July, 1830.
Freeman’s Journal (1830), 7 July
Patrick continued to run his business from Back Lane for a few years more, but somehow things were going wrong. He maintained his low-level political activity, but would have been very aware of the problems of running a starch manufactory, such a significant user of potatoes as raw material, during a time of growing poverty and famine. Down in Cork, alarming scenes against starch manufacturers were witnessed in November 1830:
On Friday a large concourse of persons attacked the starch manufactory of a Mr. Hatch, in Great Britain-street, in this city [...] This outrageous conduct was occasioned by a scarcity of potatoes in the Blackpool Market, which was attributed to the large quantities consumed in the manufacture of starch.
Freeman’s Journal (1830), 30 November, reprinting from the Cork Southern Reporter
Back home, there were more children on the way. Patrick’s son Patrick Flynn was baptised at St Michael and St John on 23 January 1831, and Lawrence was similarly baptised there the following year, on 29 April. In the Treble Almanack for 1832 Patrick still gave his address as 50 and 51 Back Lane (note also J. Flynn and L. Fitzsimons, Starch and Blue-manufacturer, 29, High Street). It was around this time that his daughter Margaret Theresa (later Mrs Murray and Joyce’s maternal grandmother) was born. By 1835 Patrick was trading from the address with which he is most associated in later years, 79 Thomas Street,12 and on 23 April his youngest daughter Anne is baptised, this time back at St Catherine’s, in Thomas Street.
There must have been problems with the new business, as in November 1835 Patrick faces bankruptcy. But it is not long before he is trading again:
Insolvent Debtors. Petitions to be heard on the 12th day of December, at No. 3, Lower Ormond-quay... Patrick Flynn, Thomas-street, city of Dublin, starch and blue manufacturer.
Freeman’s Journal (1835), 23 November
It seems to have been more of a cash-flow issue than the end of the business, and indeed a large number of Victorian businesses suffered the indignity of bankruptcy or threatened bankruptcy on the basis of reasonably small sums owing to creditors. By 1838 Patrick is one of the St Catherine’s parishioners subscribing, along with his two sons, to Daniel O’Connell’s “Precursor Society”, consisting of people who were in general supporters of the “Repeal” of the Act of Union with Britain:
Precursor Society [...] The following list of members, with the subscriptions of 1s. each from Catherine’s parish: - [...] Patrick Flynn, James Joseph Flynn, Pat Flynn, jun.
Freeman’s Journal (1838), 24 September
In due course the Precursor Society gave way to the Loyal National Repeal Association, and Patrick Flynn joined this too:
Loyal National Repeal Association [...] He also moved the admission of Mr. Patrick Flinn, an extensive starch manufacturer, as a member of the association.
Freeman’s Journal (1840), 27 October
Patrick was active in collecting subscriptions for the local branch of the Repeal Association, and one newspaper listing, from October 1840, shows how successful he was in enjoining members of his own family to subscribe:
Loyal National Repeal Association [...] Per Mr. Patrick Flynn, 79, Thomas-street, the following twenty Repealers’ subscriptions: - Patrick Flynn, Mary Flynn, James J. Flynn, Patrick Flynn, jun.; Kate Flynn, Julia Flynn, Margaret Jane Flynn, Eleanor Lucinda Flynn, William O’Donohoe, Mary O’Donohoe, Margaret O’Donohoe, John Cassin, James Flynn, James Mullin, John Bligh, Francis Flynn, John Flynn, Edward Michael Flynn, James Thomas Flynn, William Michael Flynn.
Freeman’s Journal (1840), 31 October
From this report it is clear that Patrick Flynn is now firmly based at No 79 Thomas Street, and is active in nationalist politics, at least on a local level. The order of names listed is indicative: first there is Patrick himself, and his wife Mary (née Fitzsimons), and then his sons James Joseph and Patrick junior; in the next set we find Kate (Catherine) and Julia, Margaret Jane (perhaps an error for Margaret Theresa?), and various other relatives – only some of which have to date been identified securely. From this listing it is probable that some of the thirteen children did not survive childhood, and indeed in later life we seem only to encounter seven: James Joseph, Julia, Ellen, Elizabeth, Patrick, Margaret Theresa, and Anne. The gifted concert pianist Henrietta Flynn of Harcourt Street, Dublin, is not a relation – or at least she is not demonstrably a close relation. The surviving children will be looked at in slightly more detail later in this article.
Patrick’s business in Thomas Street and John Street appeared to thrive. He is regularly listed in the papers and directories in various commercial and political roles. A typical report reads:
Contribution for the Relief of Distress in the South and West [...] One hundred and twenty pounds collected in Thomas-street alone!! In Thomas-street, in this city, which forms about one-eighth of St. Catherine’s parish, Messrs John Elliott, Michael Grattan, Patrick Flynn, Robert O’Leary, and James Kavanagh, collected on yesterday, in a few hours, for relief of distress in the south and west, the highly creditable sum of one hundred and twenty pounds.
Freeman’s Journal (1849), 25 May
At some point along the way, Patrick is said to have wished to attend a military review in Phoenix Park, and to have gone out in his carriage pulled by his old horse Johnny. The tale is told in “The Dead”. When they reached the statue of King William, the horse proceeded to walk round and round the statue, rather than continue on its regular course. The family felt later that the horse may have thought he was turning the old starch mill:
– Round and round he went, said Gabriel, and old gentleman, who was a very pompous old gentleman, was highly indignant. Go on, sir! What do you mean, Sir? Johnny! Johnny! Most extraordinary conduct! Can't understand the horse!
'The Dead', 1094-97
This family story does not appear to have made its way into public record, and is perhaps unlikely to be found there.
A note of difficulty for Patrick Flynn arises in 1855, when he starts to make arrangements to handle creditors again:
Notice is hereby given that, by Indenture of Assignment bearing date this 19th day of April, 1855, Patrick Flynn, of No. 79, Thomas-street, in the City of Dublin, Starch Manufacturer, conveyed and assigned all his real and personal Estate [s]and effects whatsoever and wheresoever, unto Richard Cashill, of Brabazon-row, in the City of Dublin, Manufacturer, upon trust for the benefit of such of the creditors of the said Patrick Flynn as shall execute the same Indenture within two calendar months from the date thereof, and that the said Indenture was duly executed by the said Patrick Flynn and Richard Cashill respectively.
Freeman’s Journal (1855), 16 May
A year later this is followed by worse news, as Patrick enters the waters of bankruptcy again:
Insolvent Debtors […] To be heard on August 9 […] Patrick Flynn, late of Thomas-street, starch and blue manufacturer.
Freeman’s Journal (1856), 28 June
The newspaper explains that, though unfortunate, Patrick Flynn has dealt respectfully with creditors:
Insolvent Debtors’ Court – Saturday… In re Patrick Flynn […] The insolvent, who was in the starch trade in Thomas-street, was opposed by several creditors. Mr. Levy, with Mr. M’Nally, appeared for him. Mr. Woodroofe, a creditor, complained that he purchased starch for cash and then refused to pay for it. He did not consider him creditworthy for some years past. On cross-examination he admitted that the insolvent had been twenty years dealing with him; that the present debt was only about forty-eight pounds, and that since the last goods were got, the insolvent paid a bill for seventy-two pounds, which was then current.
Freeman’s Journal (1856), 11 August
But the starch manufactory had to be sold and so was only a very distant memory for the family when Joyce was growing up:
To be sold by public auction, on the Premises, by order of the Assignee of Patrick Flynn, an Insolvent Debtor, on Saturday, the 30th day of September, 1856, at the hour of Twelve o’Clock at Noon, the Insolvent’s Interest in all that and those the House and Premises known as No. 79, Thomas Street, in the City of Dublin, wherein the said Insolvent carried on the business of a Starch and Blue Manufacturer. Said house and premises are held by Lease for the term of 31 years, from the 30th day of June, 1834. There are nine years of the Lease yet unexpired, held at the yearly rent of £68, besides Taxes. The House is in one of the best situations in the City of Dublin for carrying on business. For particulars apply to Mr. Richard Cashill, Brabazon-street, Dublin, the Assignee of said Insolvent.
Freeman’s Journal (1856), 26 August
From this point onwards, references in the newspapers to the family are much more likely to be to the “Misses Flynn” or other musical members of the family. Patrick lost the house in Thomas Street around 1856, and moved temporarily to New Row, West (which runs from Thomas Street up to Wormwood Gate). By 1859 was living at 16 Ellis Quay, just north of the river but not far from the family’s old haunts of Back Lane and Thomas Street. His daughters the Misses Flynns moved here too. Thom’s Directory for 1862 has Patrick listed as a starch manufacturer, but most of his activity is probably covered by “commission agent”:
16 [Ellis’s quay] Flynn, Patrick, starch and blue manufactory, and com. Agent, 22l./
Flynn, The Misses, teachers of the pianoforte and singing.
1862 Thom’s Directory of Ireland
His wife Mary died on 7 January 1864, and she was interred at Richmond Cemetery:
January 7, at 16 Ellis’s-quay, after a long and tedious illness, which she bore with Christian fortitude and resignation, Mary, the dearly-beloved wife of Mr. Patrick Flynn, regretted by a large and sorrowing family. RIP.
Freeman’s Journal (1864), 8 January
Patrick himself followed her over four years later, bringing to an end a career that had followed the ups and downs of the starch industry in Ireland for fifty years, seen at least thirteen children born – and many survive him – and which had included the curious tale of the revolving horse which found its way into his grandson’s Dubliners:
October 7, at his residence, 14 [for 16] Ellis’s quay, Mr Patrick Flynn, late of 79 Thomas street, aged 78 years, fortified by the sacraments of the holy Catholic Church and surrounded by all his surviving children. His remains will be removed for interment to Richmond Cemetery on Friday morning at nine o’clock. Friends will please accept this notice. R.I.P.
Freeman’s Journal (1868), 7 October