Soap-eating in the Arctic
U 17.1988-9: The land of the Eskimos (eaters of soap)
Bloom contemplates various places abroad, moving from those with specific associations, such as “Ceylon (with spicegardens supplying tea to Thomas Kernan)” to those with associations based on clichés: “Niagara (over which no human being had passed with impunity), the land of the Eskimos (eaters of soap)”.
Gifford is silent on the soap-eaters; Slote cites the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (which Joyce is known to have drawn on), which notes that Eskimos “sometimes, but not habitually [eat] blubber” (1910: vol. 9, p. 769/1)
Joyce seems to have been fascinated or amused by stories – true or false - of how other peoples lived (see, for example, The Shah's nose and ears and A postcard from Bolivia, elsewhere on this site). He was also intrigued by the “freak shows” that were popular forms of entertainment in Dublin and elsewhere in his day (see Roll up for the human ostrich and Marcella, the Midget Queen). Both of these strands form aspects of this story.
“Eskimo” fact and fiction
Accurate popular knowledge about the Inuit and associated peoples – at the time collectively known as “Eskimos” – was is short supply in western European in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth. Tales were told by sea captains who encountered groups of Eskimos on their travels. Towards the end of the nineteenth century more “scientific” information was starting to be gathered by anthropologists – but this often relied in traditional lore as much as collected data.
The fact that tallow can be used to make candles and soap seems to have confused Europeans into making an incorrect link between the eating of blubber and tallow by Eskimos and the eating of the related product, soap.
Perhaps the Eskimos were genuinely confused by this western soap. It seems that descriptions of soap-eating are restricted to occurrences when Eskimos are offered soap by westerners.
A circus Eskimo
Another celebrated occurrence of the myth was promoted by the alleged Eskimo dwarf Ólöf Krarer. In fact, she was an Icelander who migrated to North America and, unable to find regular work, joined a circus. Recognising the credulity of her audiences (who had never seen a real Eskimo and were prepared to believe anything about their culture), she invented and promoted an eccentric life-history for herself, in which she was an East Eskimo who had moved to Iceland in the 1870s, and then migrated further to the United States.1
The press loved her stories. Newspapers noted her lectures around the country, and the popular magazine St. Nicholas retold much of her story in Augusta de Bubna’s “From the Frozen North” in the August 1890 issue. The magazine reprinted the regular photos of Ólöf, here in her Eskimo costume (see p. 869), and reminded readers, on the same page, that “Olof Krarer, a young Eskimo woman, now visiting this country, is probably the only educated Eskimo lady in the world”.
Over twenty years later the Washington Post retold Ólöf’s story, based on the St Nicholas article of 1890, and reiterated the old tale that she “ate her first cake of soap”.2
For more accurate details on Ólöf Krarer, see Inga Dóra Björnsdóttir’s Ólöf the Eskimo Lady: A Biography of an Icelandic Dwarf in America (University of Michigan Press: 2010).
So when Bloom the credulous refers to “Eskimos (eaters of soap)” (perhaps mimicking the regular explanation “eaters of raw flesh”) he is simply reiterating the popular myth circulating in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, promoted by “Ólöf Krarer” and others, that Eskimos really did eat soap – even if only by mistake.
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